The kids aren’t allowed to get wooden weapons at the Renaissance Festival, because then I don’t get to make them.
The kids aren’t allowed to get wooden weapons at the Renaissance Festival, because then I don’t get to make them.
Before I can post this year’s costume creations, I need to do last year’s.
Here are some in-process photos of a fantasy Dwarf helmet I made for Ezra’s costume last year.
I’ve started looking into the Line6 FBV protocol again, after letting it sit for a year. This time, I had another Line6 pedal that is compatible with the Amplifi. By observing serial traffic between the pedal and amp, I was able to emulate the basic functionality of the pedal using an Arduino.
I am vague in this section, because I do not know if the circuits I built are truly safe for the Amplifi hardware. I didn’t have any problems with the amp, but I did generate enough electrical problems via USB to cause my laptop to spontaneously reboot several times… that can’t be good, right? Any attempts to mess with your hardware will probably void your warranty, and a mistake could blow up your amp or burn your house down. You have been warned.
I used the same input/output circuit found on the FBV2 pedal. Sending data to the Amplifi did not work without both of the balanced signals on the cable. I believe this may be using RS-422 signaling, which requires that differential input. If so, a proper RS-422 chip might work better than the Schmitt triggers, but I haven’t tested it.
The serial specifications are the same as I used on the FBV2, and the same as MIDI uses: 31250 baud, 8N1. I used a higher serial speed for USB debugging channels, to reduce the chance of interrupting an incoming byte.
I assumed the connector wiring was the same as on the FBV2 pedal, and verified this is the case. However, the amp supplies far more than 5v, and the voltage will need to be regulated to be compatible with a 5v or 3.3v Arduino.
On the Arduino side, listening to both sides of an amp/pedal conversation, USB debugging, and controlling an LCD and buttons all at the same time was much easier using an Arduino Mega, which has multiple hardware serial ports. I wasn’t able to get SoftwareSerial or AltSoftSerial to do what I needed here.
I used an Adafruit character display I2C backpack with four on-board buttons to mock up a user interface. I can’t find this board for sale anymore on adafruit.com, so I’m glad I got an extra.
The data sent between amp and pedal is sent in packets of the same basic format, and it matches what I found on the FBV2: “F0” followed by a length byte, and that many bytes of data. The interesting parts are the messages those packets can contain.
By recording the traffic between the amp and pedal while interacting with the pedal, I was able to identify many of the features of the communication protocol. However, there are also spontaneous handshake packets sent between the devices, and I have no clue what they’re for.
The messages themselves start with one byte that identifies the type of message, followed by message-specific data. Messages sent from Amp to Pedal had message IDs with the high bit off (0x00-0x7F), and messages from Pedal to Amp had IDs with the high bit on (0x80-0xFF).
Here are the message IDs I have identified, with my hypothesis as to what each one is used for. I made up all the message names based on what I think they’re for.
Every ~100ms, the amp emits this Heartbeat message, and the pedal emits a standard response (80, see below). I don’t know what this is for, but I assume it’s a heartbeat so the amp knows the pedal is still connected.
I call this the LED message, because when it is sent, the pedal turns an LED on or off. NN specifies which LED is changing state, and BB is 00 for “off” or 01 for “on.” Values of NN I have observed:
When patches are changed by the pedal, the amp responds with a set of messages to update the pedal state for the new patch. Included are an LED message for each Patch LED, configuring its state, as well as some of the other unknown LED numbers.
The Small Display message sends 4 ASCII characters. When the amp is in Play mode, a message is sent whenever the patch changes, with the characters representing the bank and patch, such as ” 01A”. When the amp is in Tuning mode, this displays the note the amp thinks you’re playing, whenever it changes.
The Large Display message sends a longer text message to be displayed on the pedal. In practice, I have only observed messages with NN=00 and DD=10, followed by 16 (0x10) bytes of ASCII data. I am guessing DD is a byte count. NN might be a line number if the target device has a multi-line display, but I don’t know of any such device.
In Play mode, the amp sends the patch name in this message whenever the patch is changed. In tuning mode, the amp sends a string of characters that visually depicts how far off-pitch you are from the note sent in the Small Display message.
For example, when the note is perfectly tuned, it displays:
I---- ** ----I
When the note is off-pitch, it uses > < arrows to point which way to tune the string.
Message 80 with this specific byte sequence is sent by the pedal in response to each Heartbeat message it receives. I don’t know what the byte sequence represents, and it doesn’t seem to change depending on the state of the pedal’s buttons or LEDs. It may be a device-specific ID or some other kind of identifying information.
If I remember correctly, I found the amp starts to spam packets at the pedal when the pedal stops responding to heartbeats. It was easy enough to add a response handler for this, so I did.
The pedal sends this Button Press message whenever a button on the pedal is pressed or released. NN represents the button number, and matches the NN sent in the LED message response: 20, 30, 40, and 50 are used for buttons A, B, C, and D. BB is 01 when the button is pressed and 00 when it is released.
The “tap for tempo” and “tune” features are implemented in the amp, not in the pedal. The pedal tells the amp when buttons are being pressed, and the amp tells the pedal what to display; it’s up to the amp to interpret the button presses as a patch change, tempo change, or tuning request. This makes development of the pedal software much simpler, and allows the amp to change its features in firmware without requiring a new pedal.
The Expression message is sent whenever the pedal’s expression pedal changes position. NN has always been 0 in the messages I observed, but it probably denotes which expression pedal is being adjusted, in cases where more than one expression pedal is supported. VV is the value of the expression pedal: 0-127.
The pedal powers up when it is connected to the amp, and after a brief pause sends a few startup packets. In full packet form, the pedal sends:
f0 02 90 00 f0 02 30 08
Each line is one packet containing a message of length 2. The first one is message 90, value 0; the second one is message 30, value 08. This is the only case I’ve seen when the pedal sent a message without the high bit set. Either my interpretation of the message ID high bit isn’t correct, or I did not read the packet data correctly. I have no idea what these messages mean.
In response, the amp sends these two packets:
f0 01 40 f0 03 31 01 16
I don’t know if this startup sequence varies depending on the hardware involved, but it doesn’t seem to change depending on the device state.
Then, the amp sends packets containing a complete set of state to the pedal: Small Display, Large Display, and an LED message for each LED. The pedal only needs to remember these values and only change its LED and display when new settings are received from the amp.
Whenever the pedal sends button presses that are interpreted as a patch change by the amp, the amp replies with a complete state set, just as when the pedal starts up.
If the pedal user presses the button corresponding to the currently selected patch, the amp interprets this as a tempo change. Shortly after, the tempo LED messages will start arriving at the updated rate.
If the pedal user presses the “tuning” button combination, the amp enters Tuning mode. In Tuning mode, the amp sends Small Display and Large Display messages in real time as the user tunes their guitar. Further button presses reset to Play mode.
Before I left for vacation in August, I made plans for a few devices. These plans are on hold until I get another flash of inspiration, unfortunately.
First, I plan to replace the microcontroller in my FBV2 pedal with an ATTiny85 running emulation software that implements the two FBV2 buttons as “next patch” and “previous patch.” It listens to the incoming packets to determine the current patch, and calculates the button value to send for the left and right buttons based on the current patch. I got as far as emulating this behavior on the Arduino Mega, but didn’t successfully emit messages from the ATTiny.
The ATTiny is inexpensive and small, but unfortunately its limited feature set makes debugging very challenging. I may have to build an amp emulator with the Arduino Mega, just to debug the pedal emulator running on ATTiny…
My second project was a full 4-button pedal with expression. I mocked up all of the required functionality on the Arduino Mega, using the Adafruit LCD character/button shield. I will replace the on-board buttons with beefy pedal switches. Tempo will be marked by changing the LCD backlight color, and all tuning and patch names are displayed.
When I was working on this more actively, I thought I might be missing a large chunk of the FBV Mkii controller’s functionality: MIDI over USB. Thinking about it again, I’m not so sure. It feels like it would be a lot easier to implement MIDI in the device driver rather than in the pedal hardware. Maybe the USB port is connected to the same internal serial lines as the RJ-45 connector, and the device’s drivers convert the simple button press messages into MIDI messages before they make it to userspace?
This is a fun project… sometimes. The rest of the time, I don’t work on it, because I’m doing something I need to do, or something fun, instead.
The Line 6 FBV2 is a control pedal for use with older Line 6 amplifiers and effects processors. I bought it to use with our Line 6 Amplifi 75 guitar amplifier. Unfortunately, it isn’t compatible with this newer amplifier, so it’s been sitting on the shelf for over a year.
After starting to play with an Arduino development kit recently, I decided it was time to revisit the FBV2 pedal to see if I could make it do what I wanted.
A quick disassembly revealed a single small circuit board with only 2 ICs and a handful of other components. This looked like it might be easy to reverse engineer and see how it worked.
|Line 6 FBV2 circuit diagram, approximately.|
I followed the traces from the 8-pin RJ45 connector to the ICs and switches on the board, and drew a rough circuit diagram. Looking up the part numbers, I found an inverter and a microcontroller. The pinout from these parts let me identify the transmit, receive, and power pins on the connector.
The microcontroller is branded NXP, made by Phillips: P87LPC760. This doesn’t seem to be made anymore, so it seems not worth getting a replacement and programmer for it. My first idea for making this usable was to read the output from this device and convert it into something my Amplifi 75 can understand.
I hacked apart a spare ethernet cable to use its RJ-45 connector, and connected the FBV2’s transmit, receive, and power pins to my Arduino’s breadboard.
|FBV2 disassembled and attached to the Arduino|
I had heard the Line 6 devices used MIDI, so I approached this as if it were a MIDI device. I didn’t bother building an electrically correct MIDI interface, which requires an optoisolator, because this device was being powered by the Arduino board (via my laptop), so there was no danger of a ground loop. Besides, this device should already have an optoisolator if it needed one, but it didn’t; so how important could it be?
I wrote a sketch using the SoftwareSerial library to interpret the output of the FBV2 as a MIDI stream: 31250 baud, with the default start/stop bit options. I mirrored the bytes over the USB serial port to the serial debugger in the Arduino IDE to inspect the byte sequences emitted by the FBV2 when the left and right buttons were pressed.
After a bit of fiddling, I was able to read the output. There were 2 basic data sequences:
These certainly seemed like MIDI sequences, but they weren’t quite right:
This was all very hopeful, but eventually I realized it may not be important what this device outputs. Instead of converting this output to whatever the Amplifi 75 needs, maybe it would be better to replace the microcontroller with something a bit more accessible, and just program it to output what I needed instead.
My next few lines of inquiry weren’t fruitful, but I have a plan for what to try next.
I decided to pop out the microcontroller, which was helpfully mounted in a socket, and attach a few Arduino IO pins directly to the microcontroller outputs. This effectively replaces the FBV2’s brain with my Arduino, allowing me to program it to output whatever I want.
I wrote scripts to test a huge variety of MIDI control sequences: Control Change and Program Change events on all different channels with different controls and values, and the original MIDI-like sequences produced by the FBV2 pedal. Nothing seemed to be recognized by the Amplifi 75.
What I really need is a pedal compatible with the Amplifi that I can reverse engineer and see how it works. But if I had that, I wouldn’t need to make the FBV2 work, and there would be no point to completing the project.
It got late enough that I tore everything down and put it away.
Then, after a bit more searching online, I found some information that will give me a new start. A company called VLoTech created a github project that reads and writes FBV pedal board data, for the larger FBV pedal boards that are compatible with the Amplifi 75.
This project showed me that the F0 03 sequence is more likely to be a byte count for the subsequent commands.
I also realized that I didn’t measure any timing information from the FBV2 when I read its data sequences. It may be that the F0 03 81 67 01 and F0 03 81 67 01
sequences are “on” and “off” events that need a time delay between them in order to have an effect on the target device.
Next time I pick this up, hopefully later this week, I plan to try some of the other byte sequences documented in the fbv_tools project.
To be continued…
Here is my recently completed Georgian army for DBA 2.2+.
|DBA Army III/70b: Georgians. Essex miniatures.|
|Georgian 3Kn General and 3x3Kn. Essex Miniatures.|
The primary factor for me choosing this army was that the slot was still available in the campaign. However, I also had a number of the figures on hand, as leftovers from other projects. I chose the rest of the figures based on what Jack Sheriff used in his Georgian army.
Unlike Jack’s figures, most of mine are stock, unmodified Essex miniatures. The exceptions are four Light Horse models, which were Bulgar archers. They had large toggles on the front of their coats, which I removed to make them look almost identical to the Essex Kipchak/Cuman figures.
|III/70b: 4x2LH. Essex Miniatures.|
|III/70b: 2x4Sp. Essex Miniatures.|
The Knights are a mix of Essex Georgian knights and other similar knights. The general and his supporting figures are a generic Eastern European command set.
I had a hard time finding any definitive information on colors and shield patterns for this army. I would not use this army as an example of what Georgians are supposed to look like. I was inspired by a few other painted Georgian armies online, and pictures of
As usual, these are painted primarily with Vallejo acrylics. I use a combination of painted highlights and several colors of ink washes for shading. Shields are hand painted.
|III/70b: 2x3Bw. Essex Miniatures.|
|III/70b: 2x2Ps. Essex Miniatures.|
Here is my latest Hordes of the Things army: Professor Hans’ Metal Minions. I just made that up. I finished this army before Cold Wars, but didn’t get a chance to post about it yet.
|Professor Hans’ Metal Minions|
|Professor Hans and his Avatar: Magician General.|
Professor Hans was afflicted with Polio at a young age. For years he studied Science, Technology, and the dark arts of Alchemy to try to find a solution to his frustrated confinement. After receiving a small mechanical assistant robot from his uncle, he began experimenting with building ever more complex mechanical bodies.
Eventually he invented a mind-machine interface that allowed him to give his creations the autonomy they deserved. This army is the result of years of experimentation with transplanting insect and animal brains into mechanical bodies.
His work must continue until he feels he can successfully transplant his own brain into a suitable host body. In the mean time, his army gives him the tools he needs to find human subjects for further experimentation.
|Professor Hans’ Brass Spiders: 4x Beast|
This army is built primarily out of Mage Knight figures, but there are a few from other prepainted sets: Dungeons and Dragons and Dreamblade. I repainted, touched up, and/or converted all of the figures in one way or another.
Professor Hans is a figure called “Gent” from the Dreamblade series of prepainted miniatures. I repainted him with a brass colored integrated wheelchair. In his hand he holds the Aetheric Impulse Controller for his Avatar, who can shoot its Aetheric Wave Gun at enemies that Hans has a particularly strong interest in. Hans’ Avatar is a repainted Mage Knight figure.
|Professor Hans’ Camel Backs: 2x Shooter|
His brass spiders are early creations that use a spider’s brain to control their steam powered bodies. They are Mage Knight figures that originally had riders. I removed the riders, filled in the seats, added smoke stacks, and repainted them all. These are Beast elements.
The Camel Backs are an early success with Hans’ use of the mammalian brain. They carry steam boilers on their back and shoot cannons instead of spitting. These are Mage Knight figures repainted silver with brass highlights. They are Shooter elements.
|Professor Hans’ Turtle Men: 4x Blades|
The Turtle Men use brass bodies controlled with the brain of a snapping turtle. They are mixed Mage Knight figures, also repainted in a better brass color with matching color highlights. They’re Blade elements.
Papa Bear is a giant steel mech controlled with the brain of a bear. It’s a Dungeons and Dragons prepainted figure. Most of the paint is original, but I changed the highlights from copper colored to brass so they’d match the rest of the army. This is a Behemoth element.
The Dragonfly combines Hans’ insect brain interface with a flying mech that uses his newer, smaller power sources. It’s a flyer. This is also a Mage Knight figure that had a seat and a rider. I filled it in and repainted portions of the figure.
Now all I need is a stronghold!
|Professor Hans’ Papa Bear: 1x Behemoth|
|Professor Hans’ Dragonfly: 1x Flyer|
Soon after I started playing DBA again in about 2009, I decided that I wanted an Early Hungarian (III/67b) army. It’s been a long journey since then, but finally my quest is complete! I finished a double army just before Cold Wars.
|Double DBA army III/67b; mixed manufacturers.|
|Early Hungarian knights by Essex and Black Hat (Gladiator).|
I was attracted to this army for several reasons. I am 1/4 Hungarian, and identify most closely with that part of my heritage. The composition of the army itself seems almost perfect for my tastes: 2x3Kn, 1x3Cv, 3x2LH, 3xSp, 2x3Ax or 3Bw, 1x2Ps. It’s one of the few Medieval combined arms armies I’ve seen with more than one Auxilia. It also fits well with other armies I have from the same period: German, Leidang, Polish, Russian, and Mongol Conquest… even though I bought most of those armies only because they were good enemies of the Hungarians I didn’t have yet.
|Cuman and Hungarian Light Horse by Black Hat (Gladiator)|
My first attempt at building this army was purchasing a “not for the squeamish general” army pack from another gamer on the Fanaticus forums. It had the proper composition, but as I should have expected, I didn’t like the figure selection very much. It was mixed manufacturers, but chosen based on whatever he had lying around and not based on what he thought the army should look like. After not painting it for quite some time, I donated it to Mike Kaizar, who is still working on it.
|Hungarian spearmen by Black Hat (Gladiator).|
My second attempt came when Wargames Minis had a clearance sale on their Essex Miniatures packs. After long research discovered no good solution for Early Hungarians, I settled on buying a bunch of Essex later Hungarian figures that might work. They were so cheap, I bought two armies worth! But when it came time to actually paint them… I hated them. Closer inspection showed me that they were far too late for any part of the Early Hungarian list.
|Early Hungarian bowmen by Black Hat (Gladiator)|
By this time it was late 2012, and I needed this army for Cold Wars 2013. After talking to David Kuijt, I settled on the figures shown here. The General stands and a few of the other knights are Essex figures from my previous order. The remaining knights, light horse, spears, bows, auxilia and psiloi are all Black Hat figures from their Gladiator range. The Cavalry are a mix of Essex figures, Black Hat, and a few whose manufacturer I do not know but I happened to have on hand.
|Early Hungarian cavalry by Black Hat, Essex, and others (unknown).|
The Black Hat figures are not specifically sold as Hungarians, other than the knights with round helms. Many of them are from their general Feudal range, and some are from slightly inappropriate areas, but look good enough that I wanted to paint more of them.
|Early Hungarian Psiloi by Black Hat (Gladiator).|
I knew the primary heraldry I wanted to use was red and white, but I didn’t want another red and white army since it’s the most common color combination I have. David told me that repeated heraldry wouldn’t be common in this period, but I am also not a fan of a widely varied, garish palette. I decided to use a lot more yellow and yellow browns, and rounded out the palette with green. It’s definitely not red and white army I feared it would be.
|Hungarian Auxilia by Black Hat (Gladiator).|
I’m not sure if I prefer the green and the brighter reds I used here, but otherwise I’m quite happy with the color scheme. For the white on the shields, I used an “extremely off-white.” It’s closer to beige than white, but in contrast with the surrounding colors it’s bright enough, and doesn’t add too much contrast. Looking at the shields, I’m reminded of Hoplite shield patterns more than garish Medieval heraldry.
I’m very happy with the way this army turned out. After playing it in BBDBA and the campaign at Cold Wars, I also enjoy the way the army plays.
Now I just need to figure out what to do with all those Later Hungarian figures, since that army has so few spears compared to this one.
|ABC Hobby BRE Datsun 510 #46 body on Tamiya M-05 chassis.|
After smashing up the Honda S800 body too much, I got a replacement. This is an ABC Hobby BRE Datsun 510, #46. This one is closer to a 1/12 scale body, compared to the S800 and Mini bodies, which are 1/10 scale versions of smaller cars.
Brock Racing Enterprises (BRE) set up some Datsun 510’s for racing, and entered them in the 1971 and 1972 Trans-Am “2.5 Challenge” for smaller engined cars. Datsun destroyed the competition both years (though Alfa tried to cheat to avoid their fate in 1971), and the series was shut down when the European manufacturers picked up their toys and went home crying.
The body shown here also comes with bumpers and better headlights, but I decided not to use any of them since I expected to beat it up racing anyway. Unfortunately I must have scored the body when trimming the paint mask, because it almost immediately split right up the left front corner between the red and white areas.
Fitting the body over the wheels was a bit challenging, and required some creative trimming around the wheel wells to keep it from rubbing around corners. Unfortunately the M-05 battery compartment pushes the battery wires into this body, which flexes it on whichever side the battery protrudes from. It’s a tight fit, but it works.
|Sakura Zero S chassis with HPI Honda NSX GT body|
In anticipation of On-Road racing at PT Raceway, I decided to get a second on road car so I could race in two classes instead of just one. I chose the Sakura Zero S chassis from 3Racing because it looks very good for its price, it’s a kit, there are many replacement and hop-up parts available, and it gets good reviews.
The Sakura Zero S is an entry level version of the Sakura Zero chassis. The main differences are that the S version has plastic parts instead of aluminum; fiberglass instead of carbon fiber; gear diffs instead of ball diffs; and it costs about 1/3 as much. It’s a 4 wheel drive touring car chassis with a twin horizontal plate design.
This was a very fun kit to put together. Its plate chassis is very different than the other kits I’ve built recently: the Tamiya M05 and HPI Savage XS. Unfortunately, the Sakura also suffered from Crappy Screw Syndrome, just like… well, apparently this is just like every RC kit everywhere. This time, instead of starting out driving the 3mm screws straight in with a 2mm driver, I threaded every hold with a screw that had a larger 2.5mm head. This destroyed my hands, but I stripped fewer screw heads (unfortunately more than zero). As much as I didn’t like the phillips head screws in the Tamiya kit… at least the heads didn’t strip easily.
|Sakura Zero S chassis with HPI Honda NSX GT body|
The chassis has very adjustable suspension geometry, but the stock dampers don’t allow unlimited adjustment of ride height. I doubt this will be a problem in the short term. It doesn’t look as durable as the M05, but it’s also not a giant block of plastic. I think at the speeds I’ll be running at the track, it won’t matter.
Other than the screw heads, there are a few problems with the kit. The first and most universally well known problem with the Zero S chassis is that the stock motor mount is inconvenient, because you can only access one of the motor screws by sticking your tool through a hole in your spur gear. This is inconvenient with some pinion sizes, and impossible with smaller spurs. There’s a vertical motor mount part available, but this requires you to also use a new top plate and flip your differentials to swap the side each belt runs on… and that causes your belt to run into your battery on the other side. This kit is not ideal if you’re planning on changing pinions often… but it’s still a lot better than changing pinions on the HPI Savage XS.
The other minor problem I have is that the turnbuckles seem to have undersized flats, making them difficult to turn without slipping.
For a body, I was in a hurry and couldn’t find anything I fell in love with, for sale at the same place as the chassis. So, I settled for “acceptable and inexpensive” instead. This is an HPI Racing Honda NSX GT. It retains a bit of the car’s distinct look, especially the air scoop on the rear roof. Hopefully I won’t have any problem with traction roll, because I don’t think the scoop will last long if the car is upside down.
The body fits the chassis perfectly. Figuring out where to drill the body mounting holes is a pain, though. You can’t drop the body onto the car and mark them until the posts are cut to approximately the right height, but you can’t cut the posts until the body is on the car to see where it sits. I ended up measuring the body posts in relation to the center of the wheels, and transferring their locations onto the body using the center of the wheel cutouts as a reference point. It worked, but it felt like there should be an easier way.
Since I’m going to race this instead of admire it on a shelf, I used the external headlight stickers instead of the internal light cans. I think it’d look a lot better with the light cans… until I hit a wall and crack the body, in which case I’d rather have more room to repair it inside instead.
For electronics, I used what I had on hand: a 27T brushed motor and ESC I replaced in the RC10, and a Hobbyking Orange Rx Spektrum receiver. I’ll start out with this slower setup, and once I like how I’m handling it (or once I burn out the motor) I’ll probably upgrade to 17.5T brushless. So far I don’t see hugely different times at the track between the three other cars I drive there (Tamiya M05 with stock 27T brushed; XXX-SCB with 17.5T brushless; RC10 with 17.5T brushless), so I expect the current limitation is my own driving skill more than the technology.
Unfortunately I couldn’t make it to the first on-road race day on December 1, and I won’t be able to make it on the 15th either. Maybe they’ll run on-road on the 22nd, but if not I can make it on the 29th.
|Losi XXX-SCB with body painted by Alan Ferrency|
After a summer of bashing the XXX-SCB in the yard, and then rolling it over trying to tune it for racing at the track, the original ready-to-run body was cracked at the front shock corner, and generally really beat up. I ordered a new transparent body to paint up myself, and here’s the result.
I don’t like modern, garish complicated paint jobs very much, so I went for a cleaner, simpler look. The general contours of the colors was lifted from a real Lucas Oil Offroad Series pro buggy, but I used yellow instead of white. I got the numbers printed at the same time I made decals for the RC10, but the rest of the stickers are for manufacturers whose parts are on the car. I’m not a huge fan of the “rolling billboard” livery look, so I didn’t cover every possible surface with advertising, but I think the limited use of stickers add to the scale look.
At this point I have the car handling really well on the carpet track, I just need to get out on race day and see if I can manage to not crash for 5 minutes in a row.